Three species are prevalent on persimmon in different growing regions: the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Wendel). The populations were originally collected from a wild orchard in Wufeng county, Taichung, Taiwan. To confirm the experimental cohorts were of a uniform age, the virgin flies were collected within 24 h after adult emergence. 2017). 2017). 2016). The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a destructive agricultural pest that is widely distributed in many areas of the Asian countries . 2013, Ali et al. Although it has been suggested that records from Sri Lanka are not true B. dorsalis, but another species associated with mango, CABI map 109, based on Drew & Hancock (1994), indicates that true B. dorsalis does occur in Sri Lanka, together with two related species, B. caryeae and B. kandiensis, with which it may have been or still be confused. Technical Abstract: Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. Host volatiles are vital substances used by Then, the Petri dish was incubated in the stable laboratory environment (27 ± 1°C at 70% ± 5% relative humidity), and 10 replicates were conducted per yeast concentration. Moadeli, T., P. W. Taylor, and F. Ponton. 2005. Then, fresh orange pulp was used to collect eggs. In this paper, the development of ovaries in female flies of B. dorsalis was investigated and their development was also changed, following the same variation tendency as B. dorsalis’ egg laid among the diets with different Y:S ratios. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are major metabolic enzymes associated with insecticide resistance. The acute oral (rat) LD50 is quite high, i.e., 2.7 g/kg, suggesting substantial safety issues for mammals (Opdyke, 1979). The disadvantages of solid diet are the inconsistent quality of the bulking agent, the risk of pesticide contamination, the metabolic heat, and most seriously, the disposal of the spent diet, which can result in a large amount of waste that could contain living pupae and larvae that constitute a great threat to the ‘‘fruit fly-free’ regions (Chang et al. Many commodities are naturally rarely infested by their quarantine pests (Follett and McQuate, 2001). There was no significant difference in the adult emergence rate between 10- and 20-g/L yeast diets. In South Africa, pupating larvae and adult C. capitata and C. rosa were found to be susceptible to H. bacteriophora, H. zealandica, and S. khoisanae infection in laboratory; however, no infection was recorded for the pupae (Malan and Manrakhan, 2009). Autodissemination device on mango canopy for fruit fly suppression. In the laboratory, A. ludens was reported to be highly susceptible to a variety of EPNs (Lezama-Gutierrez et al., 1996; Toledo et al., 2005a), and in field trials, effective control was achieved at the rate of 2.5 × 102 IJs of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora/cm2. Often infestation can be achieved by puncturing or otherwise damaging the fruit to facilitate oviposition (Heather et al., 1991). A high-affinity receptor (BdmGC-1) lacks a 46-aa insertion in the extracellular domain and contains the additional C-terminal tail. Agar is highly clear, stable, nontoxic, and resistant to metabolism during culturing, making it the ideal gelling agent for fruit fly larval diets (Henderson and Kinnersley 1988, Jain et al. Clarke, A. R., K. F. Armstrong, A. E. Carmichael, J. R. Milne, S. Raghu, G. K. Roderick, and D. K. Yeates. They found that all the EPN species tested caused environment- and density-dependent mortality in the third larval instar while pupae were not affected. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(3), 670-679. Adult diets are expressed as grams of yeast and sucrose per 100 g in Bactrocera dorsalis. Woods, C. P. F. D. Lima, A. Tomkins, and C. J. Smallridge. Heppner JB. Jin, T., L. Zeng, Y. Lin, Y. Lu, and G. Liang. 3B). Bactrocera dorsalis. The diet with excess of protein might be toxic (Piper and Partridge 2007) or/and affect physiological and metabolic processes, such as the down-regulation of cellular repair pathways (Martingronert et al. African Entomology 13: 149-154. View Bactrocera Dorsalis Research Papers on for free. 1949. 2018). When conidia of these fungi were formulated as oil:water (50:50) and as granules, they persisted in the soil for 667 days. RESEARCH Open Access The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications Antonios A Augustinos1,2,3, Elena Drosopoulou4, Aggeliki Gariou-Papalexiou1, Kostas Bourtzis2, Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou4, Antigone Zacharopoulou1* Abstract Arun K. Tripathi, Shikha Mishra, in Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security, 2016. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a notorious insect pest that attacks diverse vegetables and fruits worldwide. Chippindale, A. K., A. M. Leroi, S. B. Kim, and M. R. Rose. Here, adult-acquired diets with an appropriate Y:S proportion was of importance to egg production, and the adult diets containing 1:1 and 1:3 Y:S ratios resulted in a maximum egg production and the development of larger B. dorsalis’ ovaries. The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the impact of adult diets with different yeast:sucrose (Y:S) mixtures on adult fecundity and ovary development, and also of larval gel diets with varied yeast concentrations on the larval growth and pupal performance to determine optimal diets for the mass-rearing of B. dorsalis. The pupae generated from each diet were collected from sand to calculate the pupation rate (the number of pupae divided by the initial number of collected eggs), and pupal weight at 3 d postpupal eclosion was estimated as the mean weight of collected pupae in the same replicate (it should be noted that weighing pupae with mixed ages is a confounding factor as pupae lose weight with age, here only the same age pupae that at 3 d postpupal eclosion were chose for pupa weight). Diets and water were placed inside the jar and replaced every 2 d. Then, the females were collected and dissected from each diet to observe ovary development. 2005). Biological Invasions and Its Management in China. Effects of wheat germ oil concentration in gel larval diets on production and quality of queensland fruit fly. Modified agar-based diet for small scale laboratory rearing of olive fruit fly, Corn starch as an alternative gelling agent for plant tissue culture, Adipokinetic hormone receptor gene identification and its role in triacylglycerol mobilization and sexual behavior in the oriental fruit fly (, Guar gum: a cheap substitute for agar in microbial culture media, Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia. A.B. 12.1–12.3) and melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae C) are notorious international insects infesting mango worldwide. 1993, Lu et al. Having spread rapidly throughout Africa, it threatens agriculture due to crop damage and loss of market access. Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Wei Dou, Jin-Jun Wang, Assessment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Diets on Adult Fecundity and Larval Development: Insights Into Employing the Sterile Insect Technique, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, January 2020, 7, Previous research on oviposition stimulants were mainly focused on lepidopteran insects and few studies have been reported in B. dorsalis. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, 2005, Entomopathogens Routinely Used in Pest Control Strategies, Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, Lezama-Gutierrez et al., 1996; Toledo et al., 2005a, Lindegren et al., 1990; Gazit et al., 2000; Laborda et al., 2003, Castillo et al., 2000; Quesada-Moraga et al., 2006; Gindin et al., 1994; Krasnoff and Gupta, 1994, Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. Similar results were achieved with C. capitata at the rate of 5–50 × 102 IJs of Steinernema carpocapsae/cm2 (Lindegren et al., 1990; Gazit et al., 2000; Laborda et al., 2003). This article describes the development of a protocol for post-harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis on mango using hot-water treatments. In this study, we used the fecundity (egg production and ovary development) as the measured parameters to evaluate the adult-rearing diet (Davies et al. RESEARCH Open Access Bacterial communities in the gut of wild and mass-reared Zeugodacus cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis revealed by metagenomic sequencing Ashok B. Hadapad1, Suresh K. G. Shettigar2 and Ramesh S. Hire1,3* Abstract Background: Insect pests belonging to genus Bactrocera sp. Bactrocera dorsalis is part of a larger species complex and PCR analysis indicated that, indeed, piggyBac exists throughout the complex having nucleotide sequence identities of 92% among all the elements sequenced, with individual identities of 96–99% to one another and the T. ni 3E1 piggyBac (Handler, unpublished data). Figure 12.2. Following the most recent taxonomic revi- sions, this complex is currently harboring approximately 90 morphological similar taxa [1,2]. Bactrocera dorsalis could not survive on the 0 g/L yeast diet (Fig. 2013, Schultzhaus and Carney 2017). A more recent transformation yielded several founder transformant lines at a frequency range of 4–18%, representing a considerable improvement (Lombardo et al., 2009). Generally it is not considered a major pest because only a small portion of few fruit are damaged by the adult weevil but they emerge from pupae by boring into the pulp of mango during storage and transportation. 2004, Chang 2009). Consequently, the wild females that mate with sterile males go through reproductive failure and produce no offspring. Pupae from larvae reared on the 20- and 60-g/L yeast diet had greater pupal weights than those reared on the other two concentrations (F = 23.57; df = 3, 36; P < 0.001). From 1998 to 2006, B.dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. For the measurement scales of these variables, the Y:S ratios and yeast concentrations were considered as categorical data, and the egg production (the number of eggs) was considered as the discrete data (count data), and the ovary development (the maximum diameter of ovary), pupation rate, pupal weight, development time (egg–pupa), and adult emergence were considered as continuous data. Hot air treatment at 43 °C for nine hours killed all the artificially inoculated Oriental fruit flies in the fruit, but resulted in scald symptoms on all fruit skin (Chiang, 2005). Bacterial pathogens such as Bt, Serratia marcercens, and B. pumilus have been found naturally associated with dead larvae and pupae of fruit flies including B. dorsalis and C. capitata (Gingrich and El-Abbassi, 1988; Grimont and Grimont, 1978). It can be used for the control of ticks and fleas (Hink and Duffey, 1990); mite, T. putrescentiae (Sanchez-Ramos and Castanera, 2001); fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Chang et al., 2009); and housefly, Musca domestica L. (Maganga et al., 1996). Therefore, the gel larval diet was used in this study and we found that the dietary yeast concentration had significant effects on larval performance, and flies could not survive on the yeast-free diet, which further indicated that yeast is an indispensable nutritional component of artificial B. dorsalis diets. Although liquid diets do not contain biological bulking agents and are suitable for rearing some fruit flies, including Bactrocera cucurbitae (Schroeder et al. 12.4) is another key pest of mango (Tandon and Shukla, 1989). To minimize cost, labor, and materials required to achieve adequate spray coverage in tree crops, autodissemination (Fig. There are still some issues in large-scale rearing processes (Chang 2004, Chang 2009), namely, the cleaning and frequent replacement of substrates, the separation of ingredients, and, owing to fermentation, the diet becoming viscous, which can lead to larval mortality (Pascacio-Villafán et al. 2014. 2007, Gerald et al. For chilling-sensitive astringent cultivars, it is possible that the high CO2 treatment at a high temperature to remove astringency could also be effective. Christenson, L. D., S. Maeda, and J. R. Holloway. Perry) and related species, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Mangosteen to White Sapote, Transposable Elements for Insect Transformation, Alfred M. Handler, David A. O’Brochta, in, Insect Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Phytosanitary Irradiation of Fresh Horticultural Commodities for Market Access, Irradiation for Quality Improvement, Microbial Safety and Phytosanitation of Fresh Produce, Transposable-Element Vectors and Other Methods to Genetically Modify Drosophila and Other Insects, Insect Molecular Genetics (Third Edition), Preharvest Approaches to Control Insect Infestation in Fruit, Preharvest Modulation of Postharvest Fruit and Vegetable Quality, Plant Monoterpenoids (Prospective Pesticides), Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security, Ryan and Byme, 1988; Weaver et al., 1991; Sanchez-Ramos and Castanera, 2001. 2017). 2009, Sánchez‐Rosario et al. Zhao, J., S. Chen, Y. Deng, R. He, J. Ma, F. Liang, and M. Hu. Females fed with protein source attained high fecundity level, and reducing the amount of protein source in the diet negatively affected fecundity and ovary maturation (Goane et al. Because of the absence of B. dorsalis pupae produced on the 0 g/L diet, the fly emergence rate could not be tested on this diet. (A) Development times (egg–pupa) and (B) adult emergence rates of Bactrocera dorsalis fed on gel diets containing different yeast concentrations. Bars with different letters above them differ significantly at P < 0.05. Register. 2000, Moadeli et al. 2012), and it has since colonized the Asian and Pacific regions, ranging from India to Hawaii, with temporary occurrences in Florida and California (Clarke et al. Phyllanthus littoralis (GOCLI) Host The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. In this study, we found adult diets with different ratios of yeast to sucrose-influenced fecundity, and an extremely high or low Y:S ratios significantly decreased egg production of B. dorsalis. Previous studies showed that the nutritional quality of the diet significantly affected the male reproductive success, female fecundity, and larval development in fruit flies (Blay and Yuval 1997, Kaspi et al. Lee, K. P., S. J. Simpson, F. J. Clissold, R. Brooks, J. W. Ballard, P. W. Taylor, N. Soran, and D. Raubenheimer. Hardy DE. 2017), Bactrocera oleae (Hanife 2008), and C. capitata (Pašková 2007). High productivity gel diets for rearing of Queensland fruit fly. For B. dorsalis, SIT offers a promising potential strategy for the biological control of this damaging fly (Zhao et al. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. White. Dušan Žitňan, Ivana Daubnerová, in Handbook of Hormones, 2016. 2001, Rohlfs and Hoffmeister 2005, Ling 2009). (A) Pupation rates and (B) pupal weights of Bactrocera dorsalis fed on gel diets containing different yeast concentrations. Survivorship of male and female Bactrocera dorsalis in the field and the effect of male annihilation technique. Although differences were observed at sub-lethal doses, they became non-significant at levels of control required for phytosanitary treatments, indicating that vapor heat … 2A). Host plants of Bactrocera dorsalis (DACUDO) EPPO Global Database. This study was supported by the earmarked fund for the Modern Agroindustry (Citrus) Technology Research System of China (Grant No. Pascacio-Villafán, C., A. Birke, T. Williams, and M. Aluja. Linalool has antifungal (Duman et al., 2010; Ozek et al., 2010) and antimicrobial activities (Duman et al., 2010; Park et al., 2012). Langford et al. Its abundance and damage in Hawaii, especially at lower elevations, were diminished by the introduction of oriental fruit fly. Macfarlane (1966) observed that Queensland fruit fly larvae developed more slowly and less uniformly in their oranges and lemons than in an artificial carrot medium. 2011). It takes more than ten days at 1 °C to eradicate Oriental fruit flies, and wax apple fruits acquire CI in only three days under this temperature (Table 23.1). Evaluation of yeasts and yeast products in larval and adult diets for the oriental fruit fly, Effect of limiting concentrations of growth factors in mass rearing diets for, Nutritional signaling regulates vitellogenin synthesis and egg development through juvenile hormone in, Maternal protein restriction leads to early life alterations in the expression of key molecules involved in the aging process in rat offspring, Differences in larval nutritional requirements and female oviposition preference reflect the order of fruit colonization of. The complex is currently present in most of the tephritids ) Orange is a department the. 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