A molar from Drimolen, South Africa, showed a cavity on the tooth root, a rare occurrence in fossil great apes. Paranthropus is a genus of extinct hominin which contains two widely accepted species: P. robustus and P. boisei. Paranthropus is a genus of extinct hominin which contains two widely accepted species: P. robustus and P. boisei. [24], There is currently no clear consensus on the validity of Paranthropus. Various other authors were still unsure until more complete remains were found. [47] P. robustus and H. erectus also appear to have coexisted. In 2013 alone, about 1.1 billion people (15.9% of the global population) had asymptomatic genital herpes and 47 million new cases of genital herpes occurred. Its powerful jaws allowed it to consume a wide variety of different plants,[65][39] though it may have largely preferred nutrient-rich bulbotubers as these are known to thrive in the well-watered woodlands it is thought to have inhabited. The first fossils of this species were uncovered in 1955, but Paranthropus boisei was not officially declared a new species until 1959. These morphological adaptations represent the culmination of an evolutionary trend that began in earlier taxa such as … This may have occurred during a drying trend 2.8–2.5 mya in the Great Rift Valley, which caused the retreat of woodland environments in favor of open savanna, with forests growing only along rivers and lakes. Like P. boisei, P. robustusexhibited buttressing of the skull, face, and mandible; orthognathism in that the teeth were tucked under the cranial base; small anterior dentition; molarized premolars; large muscles of mastication; large zygomatic arches for passage of the temporalis muscle; sagittal crests in males and a nuchal crest that did not converge with the sagittal crest; tall mandibular rami to increase the strength of the masseter and medial pterygoid (another muscle … They noted that, though it shares many similarities with Paranthropus, it may not have been closely related because it lacked enlarged molars which characterize the genus. [66], Juvenile P. robustus may have relied more on tubers than adults, given the elevated levels of Strontium compared to adults in teeth from Swartkrans Cave, which, in the area, was most likely sourced from tubers. A partial cranium and mandible of Paranthropus robustus was discovered in 1938 by a schoolboy, 70 km south west of Pretoria in South Africa. Paranthropus boisei was first discovered by Mary Leaky in 1959, and was first termed Zinjanthropus boisei or Zinj. [45], Unlike P. robustus, the forearms of P. boisei were heavily built, which might suggest habitual suspensory behaviour as in orangutans and gibbons. [25], P. aethiopicus is the earliest member of the genus, with the oldest remains, from the Ethiopian Omo Kibish Formation, dated to 2.6 mya at the end of the Pliocene. Mary’s Zinjanthropus is arguably one of the most famous fossils from the fossil-rich Olduvai Gorge. He believed later Paranthropus were morphologically distinct from earlier Paranthropus in the cave—that is, the Swartkrans Paranthropus were reproductively isolated from Kromdraai Paranthropus and the former eventually speciated. [34], According to a 1991 study, based on femur length and using the dimensions of modern humans, male and female P. robustus are estimated to have stood on average 132 and 110 cm (4 ft 4 in and 3 ft 7 in) respectively; and P. boisei 137 and 124 cm (4 ft 6 in and 4 ft 1 in). [44] Modern human brain volume averages 1,270 cm3 (78 in3) for men and 1,130 cm3 (69 in3) for women. Paranthropus boisei is a part of the branch of robust Australopithecines, along with P. robustus and P. aethiopicus. [49][50] The pelvis is similar to A. afarensis, but the hip joints are smaller in P. robustus. Males did not seem to have ventured very far from the valley, which could either indicate small home ranges, or that they preferred dolomitic landscapes due to perhaps cave abundance or factors related to vegetation growth. [1] "Paranthropus" derives from Ancient Greek παρα para beside or alongside; and άνθρωπος ánthropos man. [10] It is possible that P. aethiopicus evolved even earlier, up to 3.3 mya, on the expansive Kenyan floodplains of the time. The South African P. robustus appears to have been an omnivore, with a diet similar to contemporaneous Homo[33] and nearly identical to the later H. ergaster,[61] and subsisted on mainly C4 savanna plants and C3 forest plants, which could indicate either seasonal shifts in diet or seasonal migration from forest to savanna. [18], In 1963, while in the Congo, French ethnographer Charles Cordier assigned the name "P. congensis" to a super-strong, monstrous ape-man cryptid called "Kikomba", "Apamándi", "Abanaánji", "Zuluzúgu", or "Tshingómbe" by various native tribes which he heard stories about. The first specimen OH 5 was found by Mary Leaky at Olduvai Gorge in 1959 after 28 years of searching. [53][69], P. boisei, known from the Great Rift Valley, may have typically inhabited wetlands along lakes and rivers, wooded or arid shrublands, and semiarid woodlands,[65] though their presence in the savanna-dominated Malawian Chiwondo Beds implies they could tolerate a range of habitats. A strong sagittal crest on the midline of the top of the skull anchored the temporalis muscles (large chewing muscles) from the top and side of the braincase to the lower jaw, and thus moved the massive jaw up and down. While the robust forms are somewhat larger than the gracile forms, they do not differ much postcranially. The physical similarity implies a similar walking gait. [53] P. robustus sites are oddly dominated by small adults, which could be explained as heightened predation or mortality of the larger males of a group. [3] Paranthropus is sometimes classified as a subgenus of Australopithecus. Paranthropus is characterised by robust skulls, with a prominent gorilla-like sagittal crest along the midline–which suggest strong chewing muscles–and broad, herbivorous teeth used for grinding. robustus. [15] There is debate whether this is synonymous with P. boisei,[10] the main argument for separation being the skull seems less adapted for chewing tough vegetation. [76], It is generally thought that Paranthropus preferred to inhabit wooded, riverine landscapes. [80], Male P. robustus appear to have had a higher mortality rate than females. It is possible that the coding-DNA concerned with thickening enamel also left them more vulnerable to PEH. It is possible that males were more likely to be kicked out of a group, and these lone males had a higher risk of predation. Some content of the original page may have been edited to make it more suitable for younger readers, unless otherwise noted. 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